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(1). Publishing is the activity that involves selection, preparation, and marketing of printed matter.
(2). So the vital condition for the agreement is that there must be a legal document, a contract, setting out the rights and obligations of the two parties.
(3). It has grown from small and ancient beginnings into a vast and complex industry responsible for the dissemination of all manner of cultural material, from the most lofty to the most trivial, its impact upon civilization is impossible to calculate.
(4). The history of publishing is characterized by a close interplay of technical innovation and social change, each promoting the other.
(5). Publishing as it is known today depends on a series of three major inventions--writing, paper, and printing and one crucial social development--the spread of literacy.
(6). The functions peculiar to the publisher--i.e., the selecting, editing, and designing of the material, arranging its production and distribution, and bearing the financial risk or the responsibility for the whole operation.
(7). Often merged in the past with those of the author, the printer, or the bookseller.
(8). With increasing specialization, however, publishing became, by the 19th century, an increasingly distinct occupation on its own
(9). Most modern publishers purchase printing services in the open market, solicit manuscripts from authors, and distribute their wares to shops for final sale.
(10). The great variety of published matter that has grown up over the centuries falls into two main categories, periodical and non-periodical;
(11). I.e. r publication that appear at more or less regular intervals and are members of a series and those that appear on single occasions.
(12). Of the non-periodical publications, books constitute by far the largest class; Periodical publications divide further into two main classes, newspapers and magazines.
(13). There’ re many other types of publication besides books, newspapers, and magazines, such as map publishing, music publishing, utility publishing, i. e., the issuing of calendars, diaries, timetables, guide books.
(14). In the 20th Century, the effects of state education became increasingly apparent, and book publishing grew to a substantial industry.
(15). Specialization became frequent, particularly in educational books, as the potentialities of the new school populations were realized.
(16). Every publishing house has its manufacturing, marketing, and accounts department, but the heart of the business lies in the editorial function.
(17). The editor selects the books to be published, deals with the author, and is responsible for the critical reading of the typescript (and its revision i-f necessary)and for seeing the book through the press, in consultation with the manufacturing and marketing department.
(18). So vital can the editor’s part be that his presence in a firm can be a major factor in attracting authors to it.
(19). The publisher’s techniques for the promotion of his wares have become increasingly sophisticated since the 1950s.
(20). The three steps, travelling, catalogues ( seasonal announcement lists with details of its forthcoming books, as well as an annual catalogue of its present and past books still in print), and reviews are the vital elements in the machinery of book distribution,
(21). Which it is virtually impossible to accomplish without the professional work of a publisher.
(22). Newspaper and periodical advertising is the publisher’s principal means of reaching the public and standards here have also risen considerably since world war II .
(23). It is now not uncommon for the large house to employ advertising agencies to prepare the copy and the general details of the campaign for any important book.
(24). Broadcasting and television services can sometimes be interested in books and their authors, and the resultant publicity may then be extremely effective.-
(25). What does a publisher’s agreement with an author specify?
(26). after clauses specifying the extent of the rights conferred, the basic clause of a royalty agreement is that which states the rate of royalty to be paid.
(27). and other clauses provide for somewhat lower royalty rates on export sales and on cheap editions, on which the publisher’s margin of profit is considerably less.
(28). B:I know proofreading is an important matter in the agreement, and the author is responsible for this..
(29). and usually with the addition that if, after a stipulated time, no terms shall have been agreed on for its publication, the author is free to submit it elsewhere.
(30). It normally specifies that in consideration of certain payments the former shall, during the legal term of copyright, have the exclusive right to produce or reproduce the said work in any material legible from throughout the world.
(31). "a typical wording is as follows: ""On all copies of the said work sold on the normal terms a royalty of 10 percent shall be paid on the published price rising to 12 percent after the sale of 5,000 copies and to 15 percent after 10,000 copies."
(32). Provision is also made for division between author and publisher of any payments received for such subsidiary rights as are included in the agreement. a publisher can fairly claim a share in them if they arise from the fact of book publication.
(33). "If the cost of making his correction exceeds a stated figure, he has to pay for the excess. Lastly, there is an option clause in the agreement under which the author undertakes to give the publisher the first offer of his"" next literary work suitable for publication in book form"","
(34). Copyright is the term used to characterize the legal recognition of rights to control or benefit from the communication of works of authorship.
(35). "The word has a double meaning; stemming from its etymology. It denotes not only the right ""to copy ""but also the right to own and control ""the copy""."
(36). The word copyright is sometimes used interchangeably with vague terms such as literary property or intellectual property.
(37). Copyrights protect works that owe their origin to the expressive efforts of a writer, composer, artist, or other creative individual.
(38). as long as a work is original in the sense that it was created independently, it can be copyrighted even if a closely similar work is already in existence. a copyright owner has rights only against those who use his work without his permission.
只要一件作品是独立完成,便具有独创性,它便受版权保护,即使已有相似作品存在。版权拥有者仅有对未经其许可使用其作品者提出诉讼的权利。....(please sign in for more)
(39). although copyright cannot be considered an absolute property right, it can be classed as a form of property. as property, it is artificial and limited in the sense that the law of a country creates it and imposes conditions and limitations upon it.
尽管版权不是绝对的产权,但它可归类于一种产权形式。作为产权,它是人为的,并在下列意义上受约束:某个国家的法律规定版权,并制定其条件和局限。....(please sign in for more)
(40). The owner of copyright in a book or play has a monopoly in that particular work, and his control over the extent of its dissemination and the price charged for its use, if arbitrary, may carry the monopoly taint.
书籍或剧本版权拥有者对该作品有垄断权,对其传播范围和使用价格有控制权,对侵权者可提起侵权诉讼。....(please sign in for more)
(41). Copyrights, considered as unique forms of property and monopoly, are essentially pecuniary rights, but underlying them is a strong personal element. Authorship is a individual creative process, something quite different from ordinary labour or investment.
版权作为一种特殊的产权和垄断权形式,实质上是资产权,并带有强烈的个人因素,作品著作是一种个人的创造性过程,与一般劳动或投资有很大区别。....(please sign in for more)
(42). "Many countries recognize this personal factor in their copyright laws through provisions giving an author a nontransferable ""moral right"" to prevent distortion of his work and to assure that he is identified as its author."
许多国家都承认这种个人因素,并在版权中赋予原作者不可剥夺的"道义权利",也防止对其作品的歪曲,和确保其原作者身份。....(please sign in for more)
(43). The duration out the copyright term throughout most of the world is based on the life of the author.
大多数国家的版权期以作者寿命为基本依据。....(please sign in for more)
(44). There are several different views concerning the purpose of copyright. The view that the author should be the fundamental beneficiary of copyright protection is the foundation of copyright legislation in many countries, particularly in Western Europe.
人们对版权的目的有几种不同看法。在许多国家的版权法中,基本观点是要让原作者成为版权保护的主要受益者,特别是在西欧国家。....(please sign in for more)
(45). In general this was the philosophy underlying the Berne Convention for the protection of literary and artistic Works(1886).
在总体上,这也是伯尔尼文学和艺术作品保护公约(1886)的主导思想。....(please sign in for more)
(46). The opposing view lies behind the Universal Copyright Convention adopted in Geneva in 1952. Under this philosophy the law should give only as much protection as is necessary to induce authors to create and disseminate their works.
另一种相反的观点是1952年日内瓦世界版权公约的主导思想,该观点认为,法律只要能促使作者多创作并传播其作品便足够了。....(please sign in for more)
(47). The middle ground has been gaining acceptance since World War II and its basic premise is that the purpose of copyright is both to stimulate the creation and public dissemination of works and to give their authors a generous reward for their contribution to society.
从二战后,出现一种介于上述两种观点之间的观点,该观点认为,版权的目的既要促进作品的创作和向大众传播,又要对原作者给社会所作的贡献给予慷慨的奖励。....(please sign in for more)
(48). " There is little disagreement that publicly accessible material should be in. some kind of helpful order, and this is generally claimed to be done best by a ""subject"" arrangement,"
供公共使用的图书应该以某种方便的顺序排列,对此人们绝少有异议。....(please sign in for more)
(49). printing should probably now be defined as any of several techniques for reproducing texts and illustrations, in black and in colour, on a durable surface and in a desired number of identical copies.
印刷现在也许应定义为用黑色或彩色,在一耐用持久的表面,生产所想要的数量的文本和图画的各种技术。....(please sign in for more)
(50). In view of the contemporary competition over some of its traditional functions, such as the spreading of literacy and general knowledge, giving impetus to the growth and accumulation of knowledge,
当人们在考虑当代其他方法对印刷一些传统功能所形成的竞争时,如传播文化和常识,促进知识的发展和积累等....(please sign in for more)
(51). Many argue that information in printing offers particular advantages different from those of other media.
许多人认为,印刷品传播的信息比其他媒体的信息具有更独特优势。....(please sign in for more)
(52). that is with all the material on a particular subject (such as education, or agriculture, or music or aerospace engineering)brought together in one place. In this way, the borrower is likely to find at least one item on the topic of interest.
这种顺序排列通常是以"学科"方式作为最佳排列,即所有关于某个学科(如教育:农业、音乐、航空工作)的书籍放在同一地方。这样,借阅者就容易找到感兴趣的书。....(please sign in for more)
(53). Most public libraries in the UK arrange much of their material by subject, using the notation of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC),
英国大多数公共图书馆以"学科"来排列其书籍,使用了杜威十进位分类法(简称DDC)。....(please sign in for more)
(54). giving, for example, 370 for education, 372 for primary education, 373 for secondary education, 378 for higher education.
例如:370表教育,372表小学教育,373表中等教育,378表高等教育。....(please sign in for more)
(55). Fiction material is often filed separately, arranged in alphabetical order of authors’ names,
小说通常分类排列,要么以作者姓氏字母顺序....(please sign in for more)
(56). or by genre (western, thriller, romance), and biography (including autobiography)is frequently held in its own sequence, arranged alphabetically by biographees’ names.
要么以类型(西部作品,惊险小说,浪漫小说)排列;传记(包括自传)通常以传主的姓氏字母顺序排列。....(please sign in for more)
(57). This arrangement of DDC is also widely used in US too.
这种DDC排列方式也广泛使用于美国。....(please sign in for more)
(58). Other libraries use a variety of schemes for subject arrangement: the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC)is most likely to be found in science and technology-oriented industrial, commercial and academic libraries,
其它图书馆的学科顺序排列还包括其它方法,环球十进位分类法(简称DDC)更多地用于以科技为主的工业、商业和学术图书馆....(please sign in for more)
(59). The Bliss Bibliographic Classification (BBC)in academic and specialist libraries.
布利斯目录分类法(简称BBC)多用于学术和特殊用途图书馆。....(please sign in for more)
(60). The Library of Congress Classification (LC)has been described as a series of special classifications, one for each subject area, rather than an integrated general scheme.
美国国会图书馆分类法(简称LC)是一系列特殊分类方法,每一学科领域有一种方法,而不是一个集合整体方法。....(please sign in for more)
(61). The outline of the scheme indicates a division between the humanistic disciplines and the social sciences on the one hand, and the natural sciences and technology on the other, with general works class (class A)at the beginning and the bibliography and library, science class (class Z)at the end.
该分类法首先分为人文社科和自然科学及技术两大类,综合性图书分类(A类)在最前,目录学和图书馆学分类(Z类)在最后。....(please sign in for more)
(62). There are various types of library which have developed to meet different information needs.
不同类型的图书馆是在满足不同信息需求中发展起来的。....(please sign in for more)
(63). International libraries. In 1919 the League of Nations was formed to try to keep world peace. Its main library (at Geneva, Switzerland)is now a part of the network of UN libraries and information service.
国际图书馆。1919年,为维护世界和平,国联成立。国联的主要图书馆(位于瑞士日内瓦)现已成为联合国图书馆和信息网络的一个组成部分。....(please sign in for more)
(64). Its main library, the Dag Hammarskjold Library, is at its HQ in New York.
联合国的主要图书馆是戴格·哈玛斯卡约德图书馆,位于纽约的联合国总部内。....(please sign in for more)
(65). Its judicial organ, the International Court of Justice has its own library, as do the 14 specialised agencies.
联合国的司法机构,国际法庭有自己的图书馆,其他14个专门组织也有自己的图书馆。....(please sign in for more)
(66). Some of these, e. g., the World Health Organization and the Food & agriculture Organization have large libraries which give information services, advice and back-up to other libraries in their subject fields around the world.
其中一些专门组织,如世界卫生组织,粮农组织等,还有大型图书馆,它们向世界各地该领域的其它图书馆提供信息服务,咨询和各种支持。....(please sign in for more)
(67). National libraries. a national library is the principal, most comprehensive library which services a particular country’s citizens.
国家图书馆。国家图书馆是向全国公众服务的最大规模和最全面的图书馆。....(please sign in for more)
(68). The national library in the 18th and 19th centuries was usually a reference library only and its services consisted of making seats available, bringing materials to its readers for study in its reading rooms, and producing a catalogue of its collections.
在18世纪和19世纪,国家图书馆仅是一种资料性图书馆,其服务项目有提供阅读座位,为阅读者查找所需资料,以及提供馆藏图书目录。....(please sign in for more)
(69). as time has gone by, other functions have been demanded, and added, Thus, the British national library has added a lending function over the years; the US Library of Congress has also developed specialized information services in other subject areas.
随着岁月推移,图书馆因人们的需要增设了新的服务,英国国家图书馆开始外借图书服务,美国国会图书馆也在其它学科领域增设了专门信息服务。....(please sign in for more)
(70). "The term ""Education Library"" is used to cover the libraries in primary and secondary schools, and higher learning institutions. academic library is for the library in colleges and universities."
教育图书馆包括大中小学的图书馆,而学术图书馆则仅指大学图书馆。....(please sign in for more)
(71). Public library is universally recognised as one describing libraries which are supervised, financed and supported by either the central or the local government to provide services to all those who are authorised to use them.
公共图书馆被公认为是由中央或地方政府管理,资助和支持的图书馆,向所有有权使用者提供服务。....(please sign in for more)
(72). The term special library was first used a few years before the foundation of the USa Special Libraries association in 1909,
在美国特殊图书馆协会于1909年成立前几年,特殊图书馆这一名称便出现了。....(please sign in for more)
(73). "it denoted libraries which covered a ""special"", i. e., a specific, particular, definable, subject-field; largely, those which were set up by , and which catered directly for the needs of, some organisation or large industrial corporation."
它表示那些涉及到特定的、特殊的、可界定的学科领域的图书馆,特别是指那些由某些机构或大企业建立并为之服务的图书馆。....(please sign in for more)
(74). Printing traditionally has been defined as a technique for applying under pressure a certain quantity of colouring agent onto a specified surface to form a body of text or an illustration.
印刷传统上被定义为一种通过压力把一定量颜料施加上一特定表面,从而形成文本或图画的技巧。....(please sign in for more)
(75). But recently developed process for reproducing texts and illustrations, however, are no longer dependent on the mechanical concept of pressure or even on the material concept of colouring agent.
但是,近年来发展的生产文本和图画的程序已不再依赖于压力这一机械概念,甚至不再依赖颜料这一物质概念。....(please sign in for more)
(76). That is because these processes represent an important development that may ultimately replace the other process,
因为这些新程序代表了一种重要发展,它最终会替代其他方法....(please sign in for more)
(77). Radio scripts and television pictures report facts immediately but only fleetingly, while printed texts and documents, though require a longer time to be produced, are permanently available and so permit reflection.
广播和电视画面能报道最新事件,但具有短暂特征;印刷文本和图画尽管出版时间较长,却具有长期保存特征和有思考时间。....(please sign in for more)
(78). Though film, microfilms, punch cards, punch tapes, type recordings, holograms, and other devices preserve a large volume of information in small space, the information on them is available to human senses only through apparatus such as enlargers, readers, and amplifiers.
尽管电影、缩微胶片、打孔资料卡、打孔磁带、录音磁带、全息图和其他方法能以较小面积贮存大量信息,但人类感官必须要通过象放大器,阅读器和扩大机等仪器才能接受到这些信息。....(please sign in for more)
(79). Print, on the other hand, is directly accessible, which may explain why the most common necessary to computers is a mechanism to print out the results of their operation in plain language.
而印刷品则直接可为人类接受,这也说明为什么电脑的最常见配件是打印机,它能用清晰语言将电脑运行结果打印出来。....(please sign in for more)
(80). So we can safely say that, far from being fated to disappear, printing seems more likely to experience an evolution marked by its increasingly, close association with these various other means by which information is at man’s disposal
因此,我们可以结论说,印刷不仅不会消亡,还极有可能与其他方式更密切结合,让人类能更方便地通过这些方式掌握信息。....(please sign in for more)
(81). Newspaper refers to publication issued periodically, usually daily or weekly, to convey information about current events. The Roman acta diurna(59. B. C.), posted daily in public places, was the first recorded newspaper effort.
报纸是指定期出版物,通常是每日或每周出版,以传播时事信息。最古老的报纸当数张贴在公共场所的"罗马帝国"(Roman acta.diurna)(公元前59年)。....(please sign in for more)
(82). The invention and spread of PRINTING in the 15th century was the major factor in the early development of the newspaper. Newspaper originated in the 17th century as newsletters and news sheets.
15世纪印刷的发明和传播是报纸发展的主要因素。17世纪,报纸主要是以新闻信札和单张新闻的形式出现。....(please sign in for more)
(83). They achieved daily publication, with a fair coverage of news and advertisements, in the 18th century. The first daily paper in England was the Daily Courant (1702), English newspaper began to reach the masses in the 19th century.
18世纪,报纸开始每日出版,并有广泛新闻报道和广告。英国最早的日报是Daily Courant(1702),英国报纸面向大众则始于19世纪。....(please sign in for more)
(84). Important newspaper .of today include The Times (founded in 1785), the Manchester Guardian. The first newspaper to appear in the US was a newssheet, Public Occurrences, which was issued in Boston in 1690.
"今天,英国主要报纸有<泰晤士报》(创建于1785年)和《卫报>。美国最早的报纸则是叫做""Public Oecurrellcep’的新闻信札,该报于1690年诞生于波士顿。"....(please sign in for more)
(85). The important american newspapers are the New York Times (1851), the Christian Science Monitor, the Chicago Tribune, the Washington Post, and the Wall Street Journal, which in 1980 became the best-selling daily newspaper in the US.
重要的美国报纸有<纽约时报>(1851),《基督教科学箴言报>、<芝加哥论坛报>、<华盛顿邮报>和<华尔街日报>,该报自1980年起成为美国最畅销日报。....(please sign in for more)
(86). In the 20th century great newspaper empires were built by Lords Rothermere, Northcliffe and Beaverbrook in England, and L Joseph Pulitzer, W. R. Hearst and E. W. Scripps in the US.
在20世纪,英国人罗兹、罗森米尔,诺思克利夫,翻比弗布鲁克,美国人约瑟夫·普利策,w.R.赫思特和E.w.斯克里普斯分别建立起庞大的报业帝国。....(please sign in for more)
(87). By 1980 the Australian magnate Rupert Murdoch was publishing newspapers in Australia, Great Britain and the US. Since the 70s such technological developments as photocomposition and the use of the satellites and photographs have revolutionized the newspaper industry.
从1980年起,澳大利亚巨商鲁珀特·默多赫在澳大利亚、英国和美国开始出版报纸。70年代起,照相排版、通讯卫星、摄影等技术极大地改变了报纸工业。....(please sign in for more)
(88). The trend toward monopoly’ owing to the dependence of the modern newspaper on advertising and the high cost of keeping pace with technical development, seems irreversible.
由于当代报纸依赖广告收入,以及技术发展带来的巨大成本,使报纸的垄断倾向几乎是必然的。....(please sign in for more)
(89). But although it must be deplored, there are limits to its dangers,
尽管值得哀叹,但这一危险又是有限的。....(please sign in for more)
(90). whatever the inhibiting influence of advertisers or the caution of large corporations, the public-service function of a newspaper can not be denied beyond a certain point without damage to its nature and so, ultimately, to its commercial existence.
无论广告客户制约和大型公司影响如何,报纸的公共服务性质都不会改变,否则,会损害其性质,并最终损害其作为广告媒体的生存。....(please sign in for more)
(91). In addition, there is much evidence of the Worldwide strengthening of the professional element in journalism, promoted by the great amount of study it is receiving.
另外,有充分证据表明全球在对报纸进行大量研究中,也增强了报纸的新闻职业因素。....(please sign in for more)
(92). "Many people regard ""periodical"" as synonymous with ""serial"", particularly in the USa, where the term ""serial"" is preferred."
许多人用英语的periodical和serial两个词表示期刊。在美国,更多地是用serial。....(please sign in for more)
(93). a periodical is taken to be a publication intended to appear at intervals, regular or irregular, for an indefinite period, and usually having several features by different contributors.
期刊是指间隔一段时闯出版的刊物,问隔时间也许固定或不固定,出版时间无限期。不同期刊因作者不同而各具特色。....(please sign in for more)
(94). "Certain types of periodicals have their own terms, for example ""house journals"" and ""little magazines"". "
特定类型的期刊有其特定术语,如像<商业刊物>和<小小期刊>。....(please sign in for more)
(95). a house journal is a company periodical produced for the staff, the customers, or potential customers. a little magazine is a shoestring journal which gives budding literary authors a chance to appear in print.
《商业刊物>是商家针对其雇员,客户和可能的客户出版的期刊;《小小期刊>则是发行量极小的刊物,主要是让文学新人有机会发表作品。....(please sign in for more)
(96). Periodicals as a whole can be divided into two broad groups. The smaller is primary periodicals.
期刊总体上可分两大类,较小的一类是基本期刊,主要刊登创新研究结果....(please sign in for more)
(97). Periodicals began tentatively in the 17th century. They became familiar publications among the educated and affluent in the 18th century.
期刊在17世纪时尝试性地出现,在18世纪在少数受过教育和富裕家庭的人中流行。....(please sign in for more)
(98). The 19th century was rich in periodicals and the 20th century has seen the decline of family magazine and weekly reviews, but other kinds of periodicals have increased in number, especially the non-commercial periodicals.
19世纪,期刊发展达到高潮。20世纪,像家庭期刊和评论周刊等刊物出现发行减少现象,而其它刊物,特别是非商业化期刊则发行量上升。....(please sign in for more)
(99). These are concerned wholly or mainly with the results of original research. The other and larger group is secondary periodicals. These often have originality in content and treatment, but their main purpose is not to extend the boundaries of our knowledge of the arts and sciences.
较大一类是辅助期刊,它们在内容和方法上也具创新性,但其主要目的并非是扩展人类自然科学和人文社会科学的知识领域。....(please sign in for more)
(100). The great majority of periodicals published today are traditional in form. In literary form they are miscellanies; in physical form they are printed documents.
今天出版的大多数期刊在内容形式上与传统期刊仍然一致:内容上仍然是博采众长;刊物形式仍然是印刷品。....(please sign in for more)