正文 文库目录 文库收藏 中文百科 Wiki百科 <<快速查询:
字+字- 页+页- 原文 对照文本 字+字- 页+页-
(1). Pure Land Jewels: Religious and Grotto Dances
(2). Another important component of the Chinese music and dance culture is the religious dance.
(3). The religious dance originated from the Wu (Sorcery)Dance of the primitive society.
(4). Based on primitive beliefs, the Wu (sorcerer)had a close relation with dance from its birth.
(5). Shuowen Jiezi, an etymological dictionary by Xu Shen of the Han Dynasty, said that the original shape of the character "Wu" (dance)was an imitation of a person dancing with two long sleeves.
(6). Thus the character means a person who could communicate between gods and men through dancing.
(7). That’s why Wu (sorcerer)and Wu (dance)were always connected.
(8). With the maturing religious consciousness, primitive sorcery gradually evolved into primitive religion with relatively fixed rituals, in which dance was an important element.
(9). This was a general phenomenon in the development of traditional religions in various Chinese ethnic groups.
(10). The soccer dance had a long history and profound influence.
(11). It had once reached a very high level.
(12). The annals of Jin recorded that in the Jin period, someone chanced upon the ritual of two witches (named Zhang Dan and Chen Zhu).
(13). The two were not only beautiful and well dressed, their gait was also adroit and nimble.
(14). They were imitating the look and actions of some spirits with floating long sleeves with superb skills.
(15). The last emperor of Chen in the Southern Dynasties had a favorite royal concubine named Zhang Lihua, who knew much about sorcery
(16). She often gathered many witches in the palace to beat drums while singing and dancing.
(17). Although they did this with the excuse of paying tribute to gods, they were actually entertaining the emperor.
(18). A great number of Wu dances are passed down today, and many of them can be traced to the traditional dances of various ethnic groups.
(19). The Shaman dance of the northern ethnic groups, the Bon religious dance of Tibetans, the Nuo dance and Tiaoshen dance of the Han people, and the Shigong dance of the Zhuang ethnic minority, etc,all develop from sorcery dances.
(20). The Dongba dance of the Naxi people is very ancient and requires high skill.
(21). What’s more interesting is that the Dongba scriptures have preserved dance steps with the ancient hieroglyph Dongba characters.
(22). As the quality of these characters is close to photographs, the dancing characters are vivid as a direct painting of every dance.
(23). There are many categories in the Dongba dance.
(24). The "God Dance" describes the gods’ adventures to establish their sublime position
(25). The "Instrument Dance" manifests the power of ritual instruments and weapons
(26). The "animal Imitation Dance" portrays various birds and animals
(27). The "Battle Dance" defeats demons to protect the religious power, etc.
(28). These are represe-ntative of the most common types of Wu dances.
(29). These dances still exist today, with old Dongba people still performing according to the ancient dance steps.
(30). The Dongba dance step is really a precious heritage in the history of the Chinese dance culture.
(31). The religion of sorcery declined with the appearance of Taoism and the introduction of Bud-dhism.
(32). But after Taoism and Bud-dhism thrived, they also assimilated many local ancient dances into their religious activities.
(33). The newly-appeared Buddhist and Taoist dances also became important types of Chinese religious dance.
(34). Especially the Buddhist dances added greatly to the development of Chinese dance art.
(35). For instance, the temple fairs still popular today include activities like the Incense Fair, Travelling Fair and Flower Fair.
(36). All these originated from the Buddhist ritual of "Xingxiang" (showing the Buddha).
(37). "Xingxiang" first appeared in India in the form of a mass activity to celebrate the birthday of Sakyamuni (the eighth day of the fourth lunar month).
(38). It was introduced to China with Buddhism.
(39). In the activity, the sculpture of the Buddha is placed on a splendid chariot.
(40). With drums, trumpets and other musical accompaniments, the chariot follows a fixed route and accepts the admiration, incense and flowers from the crowd.
(41). Following the chariot team are usually performers of music, dance and acrobatics.
(42). Fa Xian, an eminent monk of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, recorded in his Travels Notes On Tianzhu (India)that he witnessed two "Xingxiang" fairs on his journey to the West.
(43). One was in Yutian (present Hetian of the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous Region); another was in the Middle Tianzhu (today’s India).
(44). Fa Xian wrote, "On this day, all monks and laymen of the country gather to perform music and dance, present incense and flowers
(45). Buddhas then go into the city one after another and spend a night there.
(46). All lamps are lit through the night, with music and dance, and all other offerings to the Buddhas.
(47). Every country is just like this".
(48). This shows that most countries believing in Buddhism had this custom.
(49). By the time of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, this activity was already very popular in northern China.
(50). The Records of Qielan at Luoyang state that when the various temples held "Xingxiang" fairs at Luoyang of the Northern Wei Dynasty
(51). There were all sorts of acrobatics and performances, with music and dance all along the fixed route.
(52). At the front of the chariots team were auspicious lions to clear the road
(53). At the end were acrobatics and dancers who performed swallowing knives, spitting fire, climbing the flag polls, walking on tight ropes.
(54). "Strange skills and bizarre clothes are seen everywhere in the capital".
(55). This activity conglomerated all the local music and dancing artists who competed with each other every year.
(56). The role of such activities on the development of music and dance is obvious.
(57). Many Chinese folk dances were preserved with such religious activities.
(58). Except for "Xingxiang", the temples also gave music and dance performances in various rituals and fasts.
(59). The annals of Sui: Music History states that Emperor Liangwudi of the Southern Dynasties was a faithful believer of Buddhism.
(60). After he was enthroned, he ordered new music pieces be created on Buddhism.
(61). He wrote the lyrics for three of the pieces.
(62). He also ordered the official Shen Yue to compose three pieces and gave them to the royal musicians to perform
(63). Another 10 major pieces like "Shanzai", "Dayue", "Tiandao", "Mieguo’e", "Duankulun", etc., were also created to publicize Buddhism, and gained the title of "Zhengyue (orthodox music)".
(64). There were also "Fayue Tongzi Ji" and "Tongzi Yigefanbei" that were performed in every major Buddhist activity.
(65). It was with this championship of the rulers who believed in Buddhism that Buddhist music and dance thrived.
(66). The Prince Hui of Qi in the Southern Dynasties composed the "Fayue "Fayue Fanwu".
(67). In the Jingle Temple, a famous temple in Luoyang, "upon the six fasts, there were always Jiyue performers whose songs seemed to dangle among the roof beams.
(68). Their long sleeves turned slowly with the accompaniment of flutes and stringed instruments.
(69). All these were so enchanting,"
(70). That the audience all thought they were brought into the nirvana (See the Records of Qielan at Luoyang).
致使那些得以入寺观看的人都以为进了天堂(见《洛阳伽蓝记》)。....(please sign in for more)
(71). The pure land of Buddha was actually a good place on earth.
名是佛国净土,实是人间福地。....(please sign in for more)
(72). The music and dance performances were still popular in temples in the Tang Dynasty.
寺庙中的歌舞演出活动,唐代依然盛行....(please sign in for more)
(73). At the capital Chang’an (now Xi’an), "most performances concentrated at the Ci’en Temple, the smaller ones were at the Qinglong Temple,and the others were at the Jianfu and Yongshou temples" (See e New Book in the South).
京城"长安戏场多集于慈恩(寺),小者在青龙,其次荐福、永寿"(《南部新书》)。....(please sign in for more)
(74). The temple performances added a considerable impetus to the development of Chinese theatrical art.
寺庙戏场对我国剧场艺术的发展起着重大的推动作用。....(please sign in for more)
(75). Another important note is that in the process of localization, Buddhism assimilated the traditional music and dances of many ethnic minorities of different regions for its own development needs.
另一个重要方面,就是佛教在本土化的过程中,根据自身的发展需要吸收了不少各民族、各地区的传统乐舞....(please sign in for more)
(76). For instance, the Chamo performed in Tibetan temples, the Chagma popular in Mongolian temples
如在藏族寺庙中形成的"羌姆",盛行于蒙族寺庙的"查玛"....(please sign in for more)
(77). The peacock dance and big-drum dance of Dai temples and festivals, and the various dance shows in Han temple fairs,were all developed on the basis of traditional dances of different nationalities.
傣族寺庙和宗教节日中的孔雀舞、大鼓舞,包括汉族的各种庙会中表演的歌舞,大都是土生土长的。....(please sign in for more)
(78). The contribution of Buddhist culture that had the most profound influence on Chinese dance development was the numerous dancing figures in grottoes in regions reached by Buddhism.
佛教文化对我国乐舞发展影响尤为深远的一项贡献,是所到之处留下了大量石窟舞蹈形象。....(please sign in for more)
(79). The grotto art also thrived with the introduction of Buddhism from India in the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
石窟艺术也是南北朝随佛教东传而兴起的....(please sign in for more)
(80). It first appeared at the west end of the Silk Road, then from west to east, from the western regions to the central plains, the art left numerous grottoes.
首先在丝绸之路西端出现,由西而东,从西域发展到中原,沿路留下了众多的石窟寺。....(please sign in for more)
(81). In the frescoes and sculptures in these grottoes, the dancing figures are omnipresent.
这些石窟的壁画和雕刻中,乐舞形象几乎触处可见。....(please sign in for more)
(82). The earthly world can not live without music and dance, neither can the nirvana.
人间不能没有歌舞,极乐世界尤其少不了音乐。....(please sign in for more)
(83). Buddhist theories always say that in the nirvana, "holy music" never ceases for a moment.
佛说在极乐世界里时刻都响彻"天乐"....(please sign in for more)
(84). "all levels of the heaven present thousands of splendid flowers and dances to the Buddha and all Bodhisattvas", the scripture of Buddha expounded.
"一切诸天皆赍百千华香,万种伎乐,供养彼佛及诸菩萨"。....(please sign in for more)
(85). Both Buddha and Bodhisattvas must have the offerings of fragrant flowers and dance.
佛和菩萨都要香花和伎乐的供养。....(please sign in for more)
(86). Hence dance scenes were always presented in the grotto frescos and sculptures trying to depict the nirvana of the Buddhist land.
因而在竭力表现佛国极乐美景的洞窟壁画和雕刻中,就少不了乐舞的场面。....(please sign in for more)
(87). The images of flying asparas and "Jiyue" performers in the nirvana came from the music goddesses "Jinnaluo" and "Gantapo" of the Buddhist legends.
除了依据佛经传说中专职伎乐供养的乐神"紧那罗"、"乾闼婆"形象塑造的飞天、天宫伎乐外....(please sign in for more)
(88). Except for them, the grotto art also records many performance scenes of music and dance, which were exactly the same with performances in this world
洞窟艺术中还刻画了不少歌舞表演的情景,它们和人间的演出如出一辙。....(please sign in for more)
(89). The dancing images in grottoes differ according to their regions and periods.
石窟舞蹈形象各地不同,各个时期有别....(please sign in for more)
(90). This was due to the differ-ences of artistic techniques and styles,the schools of Buddhism practiced in different regions, and what’s most important, the traditional flavor and aesthetic habits of various local music and dances.
这除了美术制作的技法、风格的差异外,和各地流传的佛教门派有关,而和各地乐舞的传统特色及审美习惯的关系更大。....(please sign in for more)
(91). The Kezir Grottoes of the ancient Qiuci Grottoes in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous Region are the biggest in scale and most intact in preservation.
新疆古龟兹石窟群中规模最大、保存较好的克孜尔石窟....(please sign in for more)
(92). It is also among the earliest excavated Chinese grottoes.
它是我国早期开凿的石窟之一。....(please sign in for more)
(93). Scientific studies have determined that the construction of this grotto had started in the third century and ended in the ninth century, with a duration of 600 years.
经科学测定,约开始于公元三世纪,终止于九世纪,绵延长达六百年。....(please sign in for more)
(94). Among the abundant artistic relics are many Jiyue Figs in the frescoes.
遗留的艺术品很丰富,在壁画中有不少伎乐图....(please sign in for more)
(95). These Figs provide the viewers a glimpse of the Qiuci music and dance that had once enchanted the entire county.
使我们得以重睹当年风靡中原的龟兹乐舞风采。....(please sign in for more)
(96). The nimble gait and charming spirits could well be the best dance one can find.
轻灵的舞姿,动人的神韵,是我们能发现的最好的。....(please sign in for more)
(97). Some of the Jiyue Fig.s depict the performers half or totally naked, which fully demonstrated the healthy beauty of human bodies.
其中有一些乐舞伎人画作半裸或全裸,充分展现人体的健康美....(please sign in for more)
(98). For instance, a Jiyue performer in the Cave No. 175 has a gauze over the shoulders, her left hand rising and the right hand drooping.
如175窟的一位舞伎形象,肩披纱巾,左手上扬,右臂下垂....(please sign in for more)
(99). Her left foot tilts backward, and she stands on the right toe, with her eyes full of tender feelings and her body full of charms.
左脚后勾,右足尖点地,顾盼有情,神采奕奕。....(please sign in for more)
(100). From this we can clearly feel the influence of foreign culture.
从中可以明显感受到外来文化的影响....(please sign in for more)