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    化工:化工厂设计与操作

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    Reliability is very important in the chemical process industries (CPI). a faulty piece of equipment, process upset or leak can cause costly downtime.

    可靠性在化学加工工业(CPI)中非常重要。一台设备失效,一个过程的错乱,或者出现泄漏,都要花很多时间来处理。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    To keep processes running smoothly and efficiently, some sort of automatic process control system is invariably used. This has resulted in higher efficiencies for most processes.

    要维持过程高效平稳运转,无一例外必须使用某种自动过程控制系统,这给大多数过程带来更高的效率。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    The best control system for a particular process is the simplest one that reaches the target objectives. a highly complex control system may reach higher efficiency, but is more likely to go wrong.

    对某一特定过程,最好的控制系统应该是既最简单又能达到控制目的。高度复杂化的系统可以取得更高的效率,但更容易出错。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    With the current excellent moves towards increased safety in the CPI, the need for reliable automatic control is increasing.

    随着目前要求增加CPI工业安全性的总趋势,对可靠的自动控制的要求也在增加。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    For safety considerations, control systems must function first time. For example a process released ethylene, but the control room alarm did not sound due to a faulty alarm.

    从安全性的角度,控制系统必须首先起作用。例如一个过程有乙烯泄漏,由于警铃失效,控制室没有得到报警。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    Sensors for detecting flammable vapours and smoke alert plant personnel to potential hazards, and can also trigger automatic control systems that close valves to prevent the release of more hazardous material

    探测可燃性烟雾的探头给工厂人员发出有潜在危险的警报,并且可以触发自动控制系统,关闭阀门以防止泄漏更多的危险物

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    Or operate sprinkler systems to extinguish fires and remove toxic gases from the atmosphere.

    或者起动喷水设施灭火,并且通风排除有毒气体。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    In the example above, although the alarm did not sound, auto fail safe valves did close, but not before 200 to 5000 kg of ethylene had been released, subsequently causing $ 21.8 million damage to the plant.

    在上例中,尽管警铃没响,事故自动安全阀却关闭了,不过这只可能在200到5,000kg乙烯已经泄漏出来以后,因此而引起了该厂2180万美元的损失。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    The sprinkler system was also activated, but was not powerful enough to cope with such a large release of gas.

    喷水系统也起了作用,但其能力不足以应付如此大量的气体泄漏。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    Traditionally process fault diagnosis has been done using a mixture of standard methods such as fault trees, and the judgment of engineers and operators based on experience.

    传统上,过程故障诊断混合使用多种常规方法,比如,事故溯源树,工程师的判断和操作者的经验。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    The event of the computer has led to significant improvements and the creation of new tools which can aid rapid fault identification.

    计算机对此带来了巨大的进步,创造了新的方法,有助于快速辨认故障。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    One way that computers have aided fault diagnosis is by better visualisation of processes and their parameters, in the form of graphical user interfaces

    计算机辅助诊断的一种方式是通过图形用户界面使过程及其参数有更好的可视性

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    Programs display a representation of the plant on a monitor and quickly supply the information the operator needs.

    这些程序可以把工厂的情况展示在监视器上并且迅速提供操作者所需的信息。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    The applications of artificial intelligence (aI)are revolutionising the chemical industry, especially the branch called “Knowledge Based Systems” (KBS).

    人工智能(aI)的应用,尤其是被称作“知识库系统(KBS)”的分支,正在使化学工业发生一场革命。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    To date, the largest use of KBSs in the chemical industry has been in fault diagnosis.

    今天各种KBS在化学工业的最大用途就是故障诊断。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    KBSs can rapidly analyse the process information, locate any faults in the process, and prescribe the remedying actions that should be taken. This may greatly reduce downtime providing significant savings in lost productivity.

    KBS可以迅速地分析过程信息,找出过程中任何一个故障位置,指出应该采取的补救措施,这可以大大减少故障处理时间,显著降低生产上的损失。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    These systems originally were mainly off-line, but increasingly they’re used on-line, a major step towards avoiding environmental and economic disasters, by alerting the operator to problems rapidly.

    这些系统最初都是“脱线”的,但“在线”应用越来越多,通过迅速给操作者发出故障报警,使其成为避免造成环境和经济灾难的一个重要步骤。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    One KBS in use detects ruptures and their severity in boiler tubes, based on process parameters, and can assist the operator to analyse the process information and the automatic control responses.

    有一种KBS,根据工艺参数来监测锅炉炉管的裂纹及其严重性,可以帮助操作者分析过程信息和自动控制系统的响应。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    Another branch of aI playing an increasing role in fault diagnosis is the “artificial Neural Network” (aNN). These can be trained using previous process data recorded during system faults.

    在故障诊断中作用越来越大的另一个aI分支是“人工神经网络(aNN)”.这种网络可以用过去系统发生事故时记录下来的工艺数据来加以训练。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

    Once properly trained, aNNs can recognise fault patterns in process information, and in some cases even when there are two or three simultaneous faults.

    只要训练得当,这些aNN可以从过程信息中辨识事故类型。哪怕是在有两、三个事故同时发生的情况下。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工厂设计与操作

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